Acne is the most common cutaneous disease affecting teenagers and young adults. It is not physically disabling, and its psychological impact can be striking, according to low confidencedepression, and stress. The psychological effects of embarrassment and fear can impact the social lives and employment of affected individuals. Scars can be disfiguring and lifelong. In one prospective study of 90 patients with acne, they found a significant improvement in self-esteem with acne treatment. Thus, clinicians must be familiar with acne Vulgaris and its treatment. Acne commonly affects teenagers but can occur at any age. The most common areas where you might have acne are your forehead, face, chest, upper back, and shoulders.

A terminology change from Propionibacterium acnes to Cutibacterium acnes has been proposed based upon genetic analysis.

What are the different types of acne?

Acne can take several forms. They contain:

  • Papules: Small pink or red bumps that evolve inflamed.
  • Blackheads: Open spots on the skin that fill with dead skin and excess oil. They look as if dirt has been deposited in the place, but an irregular light reflection causes the dark areas of the clogged follicle.
  • Pustules: Pimples having pus. They look like whiteheads covered by red rounds. They can cause scarring if scratched or picked.
  • Cysts: Pus-filled pimples. These can cause scars.
  • Fungal acne (pityrosporum folliculitis) occurs when an overmuch of yeast grows in the hair follicles. They can become itchy and inflamed.
  • Whiteheads: Bumps that stay closed by oil and dead skin.
  • Nodules: Solid pimples that are in-depth in your skin. They are large and painful.

Treatments for Acne

Treatment Principles of Acne

Medical therapies for acne target one or more of four key factors that promote the development of  lesions: follicular hyperproliferation and abnormal desquamation, increased sebum production, Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes proliferation, and inflammation.

These factors are targeted as follows: 

Follicular hyperproliferation and abnormal desquamation.

  • Topical retinoids  
  • Oral retinoids  
  • Azelaic acid 
  • Salicylic acid 
  • Hormonal therapies

Increased sebum production

  • Oral isotretinoin
  • Hormonal therapies

C. acnes proliferation 

  • Benzoyl peroxide
  • Topical and oral antibiotics
  • Azelaic acid


  • Oral isotretinoin
  • Oral tetracyclines
  • Topical retinoids
  • Azelaic acid


Procedures for Acne

— Chemical Peel

  • Salicylic Acid 
  • Azelaic Acid
  • Yellow Peel 

— Laser Treatment 

— Comedone Extraction

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